The real question is are you talking about "cultural change" (which is very comfortable) or "cultural transformation?" Cultural change, 99% of the time, is reversible since no substantive underlying issues are resolved. The same undesirable aspects show up in different form.
More often than not positive reinforcement and social pressure are "feel good" stuff that have no real lasting impact on really transforming a culture. Most organizations, societies, or nations are not really interested in "irreversible change," simply "moving the furniture around the living room and pretending something really significant has happened."
If you are asking about cultural transformation, it begins with "telling the truth" about the underlying context and unspoken rules of engagement that are an institutional part of a culture. Then proceed to create constructive human interaction which has the potential to invalidate belief structures which create behaviors and systems whcih are deemed undesirable.
There is much more to this conversation which others will contribute I am sure, but without tell the experiential truth, everything else that follows falls under the category of "cultural change," captured best by the French expression, "The more things change, the more they stay the same."
I look forward to the insight of others. No one person "sees" it all!