What resources are available to get into these two and related topics? Would be also better if there are papers/books that introduces to these concepts (and toy implementation)?
New Scientist‘s End Of Money is an accesssble introduction to crypto currency and blockchain distributed ledger theory. There are also a number of short courses on Udemy and Coursera.
Today Blockchain technology is at its pick and could be one of the best time to learn and optimize your blockchain knowledge/ skills to be future ready.
There are lots of crypto currencies are available like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Ripple etc. and plenty of resources too over the internet.
But if you like to study from the scratch you could find bitcoin.org pretty useful.
It has all the documentation you needed and most resourceful among others.
There is a wealth of information on Blockchain, but for that same reason it can be difficult to know where to begin.
Here is a big list of resources, within the context of Bitcoin.
This is a good intro to blockchain, through the lens of digital currency.
If you want something more interactive, to play with the mechanics of a blockchain, try this Blockchain Demo
If you want an intro of the significance of blockchain, cryptocurrency, and decentralization, I would recommend The Internet of Money by Andreas M. Antonopoulos.
All in all, if you simply Google "blockchain", you'll find good information. But beyond blog posts, youtube videos, and books, I'd recommend finding blockchain-based projects that interest you, that excite you. At least in my experience, you get excited --> you dig into what's exciting you --> you learn how it works. There are so, so many things being built on blockchain technology - from currencies to music streaming platforms - that you're bound to find something that interests you, and that you'll want to understand better.
This is a good series of primers from IEEE. https://spectrum.ieee.org/static/special-report-blockchain-world
Start with the bitcoin whitepaper by Satoshi Nakamoto. Then get Andreas Antonopolis book: Mastering Bitcoin (get the latest edition so it has recent updates). That will be a good start to understanding many crypto currencies. Then you should read up on Ethereum as that is the basis for a set of other tokens and has different technology behind it.