Let's take the question at face value. I'm not trying to be a smart-ass, but how we phrase a question can sometimes dictate the answer!
"Is there a difference between designing for enterprise vs. consumer?"
Enterprise - a legal entity.
Consumer - a person.
You can't design a user experience for a legal entity! In both cases you are designing for humans.
Now, the difference in the UI/UX for a home user vs for an enterprise user will be dictated mostly by the functionality and workflow you need to offer for that particular user. In word processing, I doubt a home user needs to do multiple rounds of revisions and track changes for her resume or letter to mom. For expense tracking, a home user will not need to get the expense approved depending on the amount, assign it to a project, etc. So the experience, actions, complexity of the screen will be dictated by the use case.
One of the major reasons "enterprise UIs" have improved is simple. Before, enterprise purchases by driven by the IT department against a list of checkboxes and criteria, that included security and -ilitys like escalability, manageability, etc. Usability was an unknown word. Today, with the cloud, departments, business units and individual users can purchase their own IT solutions with a credit-card. So that has upped the bar for "traditional" vendors.
So, coming back to your question - I don't think there's much difference today in terms of the thought that goes into designing for consumers or enterprise users. However, there's a selection bias. Enterprise-focused companies typically have slower release cycles than consumer-focused ones. And that's the part that might drive designers crazy, as their ideas take a long time to make it into the wild.